The Heritage of the Ghassanid Sovereignty in the treatment of “Royal Highness” by Expert Carmelo Curro’ Troiano

The subject of the sovereignty of the Ghassanian Principality is very similar to that raised for numerous other states which arose in Europe and Asia and which developed or became extinct during the Renaissance period. There are numerous Italian examples. It will be enough to mention the Farnese states (Parma, Piacenza, or Castro), those of Romagna, the Savoy possessions (Piedmont), and the Medici ones (Florence and then almost all of Tuscany). At the beginning of the transformation of the imperial or pontifical dominions into ever more autonomous dominions, eventually independent in fact, there were long periods of interregnum, disorganization, of local weakness on the part of the sovereign states, namely the Papacy and the Empire, whose less attention to government affairs in peripheral possessions favored the development of a mercantile, military or administrative social class capable of occupying government spaces in major cities and therefore of transmitting this temporary power to their children or grandchildren. The rebellions in Germany, the schism that divided the Catholic Church, and the interference of the Kings of France in the events of the Pontificate, represented elements of exceptional importance that allowed local families to be able to assume ever greater power in their regions.

It is clear that when the strengthening of sovereign power succeeded in imposing itself again on the entities that were within the domains recognized to them, the end of these brief lordships was general (the Bentivoglio in Bologna, the Baglioni in Perugia, and many others). In fact, it should not be forgotten that our ancestors were essentially legalists, and therefore the return of a state or a feudal state to the ancient lord was considered normal, even after a very long time from the end of his dominion; while in other cases the impossibility of intervening without dangers and without economic expenditure or the diplomacy of balances advised sovereign governments not to intervene directly, safeguarding only rights that were becoming more and more random and solvent. This is the case of Florence where the Empire continued for a long time to maintain a garrison during the principality of Cosimo but where in reality the Prince of Casa Medici ruled with his own ministers, often in hostility or in suspicion of the government of Charles V.

In these cases, one should not speak of half-sovereign sovereign states, since often the definitions within which we want to tighten the facts do not have a real comparison with reality.

When, for example, the Medici House was able to maintain control over Tuscany (and this lasted until Italian unity), without heavy imperial interventions, especially when Spain withdrew its garrisons from Florence and Livorno, we can speak of sovereignty; before being able to exercise this power (that is, until the Lord of Florence was subjected to imperial approval for every act of his) there is no valid and recognizable entity of International Law. Even if the Emperor will subsequently proclaim his high sovereignty over Florence (as over other Italian states), the Medici state will remain a body of international law, being able to control its territory and oppose any imperial actions by force. In short, sovereignty on paper remains on paper and not in practice, as Spanish or Sicilian sovereignty on the island of Malta will no longer be valid, once the Knights of Malta manage to control their own state by themselves and even reject the terrible assaults of the Turkish fleet, becoming, in fact, an independent state and no longer a vassal of the Kingdom of Sicily (Cf. C. CURRO ‘, The royal abuse in Catanzaro against the Jerusalemite Knights: the eighteenth-century intrusiveness in

It must therefore be said that only true and false states exist since it is possible to include in this second group all those public entities to which the state title has been attributed to a political fiction in the course of history but which in reality cannot be considered as such, as they are not they had effective control over their population and territory and survived only thanks to the support of the troops of an occupying Power. This is the case of the self-styled Italian social republic that the Germans established in 1943 in Northern Italy, of the Slovak state, of the occupation governments installed in the territories conquered during the Second World War (Cf. R. QUADRI, Public International Law, Naples 1973, p. 434).

The same applies to the states protected by the Turkish Empire such as Moldavia or Wallachia, whose prince was appointed by the Sublime Porte but who could not become independent, so much so that the Ottoman government was able to depose them, imprison them, exile them, demonstrating that have full control of the territory of these principalities and that the Prince was just a kind of governor.

In the case of the Ghassanid states, we can associate the events of other European states such as northern Albania and Montenegro. Or the events of other territories in the Middle East, such as the vast, almost depopulated areas of the Arabian Peninsula and Libya, only officially placed under the authority of the Turkish government, where the founders of the most rigid Muslim religious brotherhoods founded seats for their schools, which in practice became autonomous from the central power and then authentic sovereign states.

These territories, located in mountainous or desert areas, and difficult to reach or control, were only nominally under the dominion of the Turkish Empire. It was uselessly said that Turkish high sovereignty would persist over states such as Yemen or Egypt. In reality, if the Treaty of London of 1840 still recognized the Ottoman Empire as having a prevalence of intervention in foreign policy and in the military field, in fact, Egypt was rapidly becoming independent, since nominal sovereignty in practice is insignificant compared to sovereignty. effective (Cf. F.F. DE MARTENS, La question égyptienne et le droit international, Brussels 1882). As for Yemen, there was talk of suzerainetè (Oberhoeit) of Turkey during the nineteenth century; but it is clear that this was a political and diplomatic fiction, very interesting for states like Germany which at that time were actively working to increase their influence in the Empire, since the South Arabian state, in its almost perfect isolation (and perhaps thanks to this condition) it was actually an independent political entity (Cf. R. QUADRI, L’ile de Camaran, in Revue égiptienne de Droit international, 1957, spec. 22 et seq.).

Montenegro managed to remain independent in a large part of its Orthodox bishopric and in vain the Government of Constantinople tried to implant its power there, eventually giving up and accepting the fait accompli of a state that had been able to maintain itself independent with its new dynasty.

In the long and alternating period of decline of the Byzantine Empire, while numerous Christian populations of the Middle East preferred to submit to Muslim rule rather than remain under that of Byzantium, in their truly oppressive eyes, there was no lack of autonomy and therefore of sovereignty for local potentates. , in particular when the prestige of some of their authoritative exponents made it impossible for the Byzantines or Arabs to control the territory.

The Ghassanid States, located along the border of the ancient Roman Empire, had been considered independent entities for centuries, thanks to the need for Rome to engage in long and difficult disputes with the Persian Empire and eagerness to maintain a peaceful hinterland along which to pass their military communication routes. This is the reason that kept public opinion, writers, and historians, in the belief that the ancestors and founders of the successive Ghassanid political entities were authentic kings (Cf. ). The facts can in fact be interpreted under the dynastic point of view, according to the widespread custom in the world, whereby if territorial sovereignty collapses, depending on the situation on the ability of the most powerful Empires to extend their power over them, it does not fail instead. the real dignity which is fixed on certain families. In fact, there is a general opinion that even in the absence of sovereign status, the royal status cannot be diminished, despite political and military changes.

Let’s take the case of the Bourbons: in France, this family was deposed by the revolution of 1789 which established the republic; and in 1802 the Bonaparte family ascended to the throne in his place. However, no one has ever thought that the Bourbons had lost their royal status forever, so much so that in 1815 they were called to the throne again; and today, despite the Bonapartes and the republic having succeeded them again, neither public opinion nor the law disputes their royal status, and their use of having the Head of the Dynasty confer noble titles on the members of the Family. Even the Bourbons-Spain, supplanted by the Savoy, by the republic, by a Francoist monarchy without a sovereign, have always been considered characters to be honored and mentioned with the title of Royal Highness, until the establishment of the constitutional monarchy which gave them back the precise privileges of the Crown. Same situation in Italy. Here the ancient ruling families (Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Bourbon-Parma, Austria Este, Habsburg Lorraine), despite being replaced and exiled by the Savoy with Italian unity, and therefore by the republic, continue to maintain their royal status, their components are called “Royal Highnesses” (Imperial and Royal for the Habsburgs), the Heads of the Dynasties confer titles of chivalry (today recognized by the ceremonial of the republic), and in some cases noble titles.

At this point, we can consider that while for the rulers of Moldavia or Wallachia it should not be considered that we are in the presence of royal houses, due to their impossibility of controlling the governed states, for Montenegro or for the Ghassanids cohabiting with the Roman Empires and Byzantine, we can instead think favorably of the existence in a more or less long time, of the sovereign characteristics fixed in their houses, since there was a period of perfect sovereignty over territory and subjects, during which families reigned without external interference, allowing the descendants of the Princes to be defined Royal or Imperial Highnesses (due to their relatives), and not to be compared to nobles of important feudal vassal states.

Therefore, the royal dignity has not been exhausted for the simple reason of territorial conquest and absorption. Indeed, the presence of vast fiefdoms, large places of political and military influence even within other states, constitutes the demonstration of a power that has been transformed, adapted, as if to protect the personal dignity handed down to people even if in times different.

Carmelo Curro’ Troiano was born in Salerno (Italy) where he lives. Graduated in Political Science, International Law, and Modern Literature. He is a historian and journalist (registered in the professional register). He is an expert in Genealogy and Heraldry; his family trees are among the most crowded and complete that have been made in Italy. As a cultural popularizer, he is engaged in television broadcasts and numerous conferences throughout the country. He collaborates with high-level newspapers and periodicals (including Focus, Il Mattino, Roma, Cronache del Mezzogiorno, Cuadernos de Ayala). He has written many books and scientific publications on behalf of public bodies, municipalities, and parishes.

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Forget persecution “just” against Christians

While the world discusses about the intentions and anti-Isis projects, on small numbers of military forces to be sent to halt the advance of terrorists, on barriers to be placed as a thin brake for the peaceful entry of real or imagined migrant in Western Europe, a sad reality recurs and looms over the Middle East: Christians continue to be persecuted and murdered on a daily basis.

And so often, by fellow or friends of those want to uphold human rights in Gaza and impose sharia. I have nothing against the Palestinians, nothing against the Kurds, Iranians and Muslims. In fact, my long studies of history and anthropology have always led me to study and a great deal considering the civilizations of the Middle East or African populations whose history has put them in friction conditions if not continuous hostilities with other realities very next to their development centers. But these are problems concern the history and political science, with all the prospects a scholar can help to investigate and explore. I know too well the Christian religion is a Few since its inception has been persecuted. Jesus himself warned his disciples: “Rejoice when you are persecuted because of Me” by drawing several times what would be the essential lines in the history of Christianity.

It was not a persecutor of the St. Paul himself then struck on the road to Damascus? and how indifferent, how many jailers,since the days of the Roman Empire up to the Vietnamese prisons of the twentieth century, have been converted by the light emanated from love, patience and hope of those the blind would have looked like polosers condemned to rot for years?

However, I must remember the basis of persecution, as the basis for all the massacres perpetrated in the world at all latitudes, there is a rejection of life, a hatred for the individual man and mankind in a broader perspective. It’s no use trying to fool us. The hatred of which we speak is often generated and fed without cause, not only for economic or racial reasons of which we speak; but also for pleasure, for the satisfaction of hurting the man who is not like us or do not think like us. For the sick joy of inflicting the next mortal pangs in their own eyes, as did Calvin in Geneva, the Protestant capital of his time, when he wanted to personally attend to the numerous executions which were carried by its courts.

How surprising about this?

Jesus himself called the Devil “the murderer” and “the enemy of mankind.” The envy of the man who was one of the most beautiful of the angels was born since the beginning of time, ever since his heavenly and disembodied intelligence had the knowledge the second Person of the Trinity, Jesus Christ, has a body glorious and so human. Like being second to a man-God?

While for men the proof of his loyalty to God would have been constituted by the refusal to obey and not to eat the forbidden fruit, so for the angels proof was established by the acceptance of this supernatural reality. From knowing God had a mother, and that would be born men as priests who would have brought down the second Person on earth every day in the future earthly world. Michael and his fellows, devotees to their Creator proclaim their “amen” and went up to Heaven. Lucifer shouted his “non serviam” (I will not serve), and was instantly plunged into the deep abyss of which St. Paul speaks. Snatch man to God is the devil’s goal. Rip the soul but also to eradicate them from the earthly life; for the Lord is a lover of life, and therefore does not rejoice at the death of the living. Wars and persecutions, disasters and misunderstandings are the visible events of a struggle has physically started in heaven and continues on earth, having as object of conquest men and States.

About horrible massacres carried out by the pagan emperors, of which he himself was a witness, Eusebius of Cesarea says, “when the whole human race was plunged into a dark night and a dense darkness for the deception of demons and nefarious action of enemy spirits of God, with Jesus’ coming disbanded once and for all the chain of our wickedness.

But on one such grace and such a benefit the envy of the devil who hates the good and love evil is almost exploded and has moved against us its deadly forces (…)  and excited secretly against us all kinds the beast in human form “(cf. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, X, 4, 13-14).

It’s a fact brings us back through the millennia to the great massacres of history and chronicle. Protestant persecution physically liquidated all those refused to accept the creed of Luther, and caused the depopulation of entire Nations such as Norway and Iceland. The years of the English and French revolution who starved Europe and led to the martyrdom and war million victims in the name of civilization, of enlightenment. The invasion of the Americas with the massacres of American Indians and Redskins. And before that, human sacrifices with which the Aztecs and Maya pre-Columbian bloodied their temples, sacrificing thousands of innocent people every year in honor of their gods fatal. L ‘ “useless slaughter” represented by the First World War “.

The colonialism that was imposed in Africa and Asia, a new economic and political orders distorting the traditions of those populations. The Russian revolution which stretched its tentacles on the world to impose a new order in which there would be no place for God. The nazi and fascist regimes with their remodeling of human dignity, and the death camps, authentic temples of the devil and his unclean priests, clothed in the vestments of the uniforms of the SS squads, and to celebrate their satanic death rites. The Pol Pot fields where huge masses of people had begun to die and make room for a company that had no memory of the past. And ‘terrible to think how many massacres have been committed in the name of God, in the name of the alleged intellectual superiority, in the name of the greatness of a race or the triumph of a religion. Forgetting, especially on the part of too many Christians, Jesus’ warning that recalls how the smaller will be the first in the Kingdom of Heaven.

The persecution and an increasing number of Christians are part of this plot that insistently wants blood. While Jesus dies on the cross, shedding their blood and shouting his thirst for souls, the devil nailed on endless crosses so many human beings because of their blood thirsty. And the blood of these Hosts killed out of hatred for God and for life, is especially welcome if they are innocent baptized Christians who are blood relatives of Jesus for having received Communion or Jews in whose veins flows the same blood of Christ .

Think of as still in the Middle Ages knew well the families who were descended from King David, made up of people who had the same ancestor as the founder of Jesus. Kin of Our Lady, St. Joseph, St. Anne and S. Gioacchino, St. John Baptist, the Apostles. The fierce tyrants have sought them in the ghettos and in the houses, they wrote their sentencing boards, posters racist and racist laws to have the taste to become like King Herod who wants to identify, among the infants children of Israel, divine child.

It’s time to think of our Martyrs, from Nigeria to Egypt to Iraq, and that the false gods generalist leave space to our Christian brothers who are killed out of hatred for Christ.

Carmelo Currò

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